1. The Largest in Ireland and the oldest in Europe, CARROWMORE
CARROWMORE Built around 4600-4200 BC.
- There were originally over 100 monuments on this site including, chamber tombs, court tombs, ring forts, cairns and passage graves.
- There are about 30 sites still worth visiting.
- The curator of this site proudly stated that this Carrowmore is the starting point of Grate Ley Line.
- The tomb 19 is the largest of all the boulder circles some seventy feet in diameter with 49 stones still visible, originally there were 52 stones.
- Knocknarea mountain can be seen in the background, on the summit you can make out the great cairn of Miosgan Meadhbha, which is associated with Queen Maeve.
２．Anciant Ritual Site Court ruin CREEVYKEEL
- Dating from the Neolithic Period, 4000-2500 BC, this site is one of the finest examples of a Court Cairn in Ireland.
- It has a cairn, entrance passage, an oval court and a double chamber gallery.
- The Tomb was excavated in 1935 and shortly afterward restored.
- The Cairn is wedge shaped and the court (where rituals were performed) is some 50 feet in length.
3. Astronomical Observations at Cairn G CARROWKEEL
- The entrance of Cairn G incorporates a structure known as a roofbox.
- The other famous example of roofbox is Newgrange which is aligned to the Winter Solstice sun rise.
- Difference to Newgrange ：Cairn G is aligned to the Summer Solstice sun setting and the passage of Cairn G is much shorter than Newgrange, only about 2 meters long, so the Roof-box opens directly into the chamber.
4. LOUGHCREW Complex Cairn T
The Loughcrew passage tombs, also known as Slieve na Calliagh, meaning “Hill of the Witch”. There are over 30 mounds and cairns, mostly on the two main hills.
- Cairn T is the largest on Carnbane East approximately 120 ft. in diameter, this cairn was covered in white quartz the same as used at Newgrange.This site is to measure 08:25:10 The tombs were built around 3200 BC.
- The primary purpose of these passage mounds is to measure time.
- Cairn T is aligned with the Spring and Autumnal Equinox.
- Cairn T also has the Irish cruciform layout with a large central chamber with side chambers, also similar to the mounds at the Boyne Valley complex, there are many inscribed stones.
5. Sun beam to the chamber on Midwinter NEWGRANGE
Newgrange is a passage tomb which is much older than the Egyptian pyramids, supposed to be constructed more than 5,000 years ago.
- The roofbox directly above the entrance is well known.
- The passage and chamber of Newgrange are illuminated by the winter solstice sunrise.
- A shaft of sunlight shines through the roofbox over the entrance and penetrates the passage to light up the chamber. The dramatic event lasts for 17 minutes at dawn on the Winter Solstice and for a few mornings either side of the Winter Solstice.
- The Tri-Spiral pattern engraved on one of the stones engraved on one of the stones inside the chamber of Newgrange is designed for irradiating by sunbeam. The inside is steeped in darkness all the year round, except this period of Winter Solstice,
- In Egypt, the Temple at Abu Simbel, built for Ramses II, incorporated the same “light show”, occurring at Ramses II’s birthday.
- Ritual on Winter Solstice is believed in “rebirth”, however, purpose built of Newgrange is still shrouded in mystery.
- During excavation, some human remains were discovered, so some believe this spot must be a tomb or for sacrifice, others suggest the astronomical observatory, but concluded still in mystery.
- It is obvious this site is designed to aligned to celestial motion.
Exterior of the Newgrange mound must be shining brilliantly, covered with white quarts.
６．The Brugh na Boinne
- The Brugh na Boinne (Irish for Valley of the Boyne) is a World Heritage Site (registered in 1993) in County Meath of Ireland and is one of the largest and most important prehistoric megalithic sites in Europe.
- The Brugh na Boinne complex across the valley has many archaeo-astronomical site such Newgrange, Knowth and Dowth etc. Light Show” on Winter solstice, starts from Newgrange moving to enter a number of satellite cairns during the day, finally the sun beam enters the large cairn of Dowth at sunset of midwinter.
- Brugh na Boinne (the Boyne Valley) is originally from the “Bend of the Boinne”.
- The river Boiine or Boand, means White Cow as the White Cow Goddess, the river is said to reflect the heavenly river, “the Milky Way”.
- Furthermore, the waters of the river Boyne were also said to offer the gift of second sight, and initiatory power.
7. Hill of Tara & High Kings
- On a clear day it is claimed that features in half the counties of Ireland can be seen from a top Tara which was once the ancient seat of power.
- 142 kings are said to have reigned there in prehistoric and historic times at hill of Tara.
- “Tara” is the name of plantation farm of Scarlett O’Hara in the historical story, “Gone with the Wind”.
The ceremony which only by the High King could be lit the fire to proclaim the arrival of spring at the top of Hill of Tara.
- St. Patrick used the shamrock to explain the Trinity – Father, Son and Holy Spirit.
- The word “shamrock” comes from the Gaelic word “seamrog” (In irish, it means “summer plant”) meaning “trefoil” (three leafed) or “little clover”.
- In Arabia, it is called shamrakh. It was a sacred emblem in Iran and to the Persian triads (Bell, Sun and Moon).
- It is also a sacred plant among the Druids. Shamrock is the national flower of Ireland.
8. The Lia Fail
- The Lia Fail or Stone of Destiny which stands about one meter in height is considered by some to have been a fertility symbol.
- According to legend, on the inauguration of a worthy High King the stone would roar its approval.
On Summer solstice day, Druid monks and believers still have a ritual at Hill of Tara, as well at Stonehenge in UK getting popular and overcrowded.